I begin by introducing the distinction between intelligence and the g factor and by assessing the recent change in the epistemological status of theories critical of g. After explaining the usefulness of defining intelligence as both the ability to learn quickly and thoroughly, and the capacity to deal with environmental complexity, I offer five key observations about why g matters for everybody everywhere, followed by five key observations about why g matters for geography and environmental studies. In the conclusion, I will argue it is wise to embed the study of intelligence within the critical project in geography.
Volumul XIV (2009)
It has been commonplace in environmental thinking that the Western philosophical tradition is inherently hostile to the natural world and has fostered the exploitation of nature throughout history. Recent studies on the transition from the Renaissance emblematic world view to the scientific one can also be accommodated with a modified version of this thesis. However, even in the light of these recent advancements, it is still possible and, I argue, necessary to hold a more balanced and realistic view according to which early modern developments toward an ecologically more sensitive attitude would be tightly bound to the articulation of modernity’s environmentally destructive tendencies. Thus, any analysis that accuses early modern philosophy of reinforcing exploitation is inherently biased, one-sided and unhistorical. The preconditions of ecology and that of unlimited environmental exploitation resulted from the same intellectual developments at the end of the seventeenth century.
In this paper I will consider the sublime an aesthetic category not only naming but symptomatically expressing and interpreting an experience of boundaries that reveals our relating to nature, and I will attempt to explore the possibility of this alternative notion of the sublime. First, I will use this approach for a critical reading of the Kantian sublime, and its postmodern counterpart in Lyotard’s thought, and I will introduce the notion of the sublime understood as boundary-experience. Second, based on some Heideggerian insights I will show how this aesthetic experience is rooted in underlying ontological questions. Third, I will reveal the existential implications of conceptualizing the sublime as a boundary experience of nature.
Making young age groups conscious about environmental problems and responsibility does not only fall on the shoulders of schools and parents but also on media and film-makers. The changing methods of representations of varying environmental issues are discussed here, taking into consideration that in the past 70 years, animation-making has experienced several ideological shifts and has opened up a channel to address adults as well. This switch makes it possible to incorporate themes from the field of environment. To exemplify their representation, films from the 1990s onward are discussed from mostly the palette of American animation, with some previously produced film examples as a historical reference.
The present study relies on the basic assumption that individual differences in attachment are involved in organizing one’s experience by means of the cognitive-affective models represented by the internal working models of relationships. Suggestion is conceptualized as a special modality of social influencing,  which is ubiquitous in all relationships and works through the activation of cognitive-affective schemata. We examined the effects of controlling versus informative feedback on the size of improvement in performance on a mental states recognition test in a group of psychology students, as well as the involvement of adult attachment in these effects. Results are discussed mainly in terms of educational implications.
 Lars-Gunnar Lundh, “Normal Suggestion. An Analysis of the Phenomenon and Its Role in Psychotherapy”, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 5 (1998): 24–38.
The detachment of man and nature, the strict positioning of the object postulated by the subject is the scientific paradigm of modernity with Cartesian roots, which organically determines the boundaries and frameworks of our everyday thinking. The Heideggerian and Jonasian existential line of thinking, postulating that the Being-Here is originally determined by the environment and drawn into the world, offers a real alternative to the former. The concept of life, though it cannot be defined in the strict sense of the word, can be satisfactorily described on the basis of modern natural sciences, and, relying on the testimony of prominent bioethicists, an existentialist bioethics, laying the foundations for the respect of life, can be built around it, showing a new relationship between environment and man, as well as a practical attitude more compatible with the moral challenges of the age.
My paper offers a special approach of the environmental thought: an analysis of the possible parallels between the protection of our terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. The first problem is the status of the objects of dead nature on Earth and in outer space, in three regards: (a) the dangers of the effects of a human activity for other humans; (b) our obligation to preserve an object for a research in the future; (c) preserving an object because of its inherent beauty. In this article I will interpret some elements of the reasoning of the environmentalist regarding the cosmic pollution as analogies of similar ideas about the protection of the biosphere. By my analysis the basis of this analogy has its roots in an element of the tradition of the western philosophy, the parallelism of the description of humans as parts of the macrocosm, mesocosmos, and as microcosms in the Stoical philosophy. Finally, I will reason for the impossibility of any value which is independent from human interests.
The paper discusses the social philosophical aspects of sustainability from multidisciplinary – historical and logical – viewpoints. The analysis shows that a sustainable community may create a relationship with nature and also its human environment that is more harmonious than that of an unsustainable society. Sustainable societies must solve an optimization problem, namely they must avoid the exploitation of nature, as well as its underuse. In opposition to common knowledge, sustainable societies cannot be self-sufficient (autarky); indeed, they must be open societies able to maintain sustainable commerce with each other. Any other alternative may only give a less satisfactory answer to the problem of exhaustible and scarce natural goods.
This study claims that the concept of sustainability is threatened by being closed into generalities and void promises. Insofar as this concept is satisfied to urge the linear convergence of the environment and economic development, it will hardly be able to grasp the tendencies of modernity. There is a need to differentiate between strong and weak sustainability, because weak sustainability may only repeat existing tendencies at most. The study attempts to approach the concept of strong sustainability, pin down its criteria, shed light on the pertaining normative measures, and show that weak sustainability is only a subsidiary case of strong sustainability.
Though Transylvania’s rich gold and silver deposits have attracted foreign people’s attention, geological information was rather slowly accumulated here. In the 19th century, the geological research of Romania’s Inner-Carpathian region, comprising mainly the historical provinces of Transylvania and Banat were in a way directed by the geological institutes of Vienna and Budapest. A considerable contribution to geological research was made by autochthonous scholars gathered around the University of Cluj. They investigated precious metal, complex sulphides, iron, or salt deposits.
With the theoretical premise of stylistic interferences as a starting point, the present study wishes to answer the following question: Why and how did Renaissance art influence the icons of Transylvania and the Land of Maramureş in the 16–18th centuries? Analyzing the icons of this period I shall demonstrate that the reception of Renaissance art was manifest in the field of decorations, due to the nature and characteristics of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine painting. I shall also indicate the models and sources of inspiration coming from different directions. Studying thoroughly the reception phenomenon, I tried to explain how the Renaissance plastic repertoire was assimilated by the religious painting of these regions. The elements taken over were reformulated according to local necessities, and in time these elements became traditional, being preserved also in the 18th century icons.
Beginning with the first half of the 17th century, the Greek printing office of Venice began to publish a large number of historical works. In Eastern Europe historiographical popular works in prose and verse such as chronicles had a great popularity. The writing known as the 1570 Chronicle, considered anonymous, though attempts have been made to attribute it to Malaxos or Damaschi Studitoul, served as a basis for Vivlion istoricon attributed to Dorothei, the Metropolitan of Monembasia, a popular chronicle printed in Venice in Ioan Antonie Iulian’s printing office in 1631. The two popular Greek chronicles were translated in Romanian sometimes at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. The study comments on the different opinions related to the similarities and differences between ms. 3556 and 3450, two translations or copies of the above mentioned popular chronicles in the BAR collection.
The works mentioned in this paper are popularizing writings in the field of Earth sciences with reference to Transylvania, written in the second half of the 19th century as a result of the endeavours of an amateur of geology, Basiliu Basiota. He makes remarks about certain general environmental problems and natural phenomena, and emphasizes Transylvania’s natural beauties and wealth, especially that of the Apuseni Mountains.
The study presents three alternative possibilities of the philosophical interpretation of man-environment relationship, each of which formulates its standpoint in opposition to the ruling trends. All three “counter-discourses” deny the concept that the sole reason of human life is to unrestrictedly rule over nature. Novalis, Gaston Bachelard, and Peter Sloterdijk draw our attention to the fact that the technological and capitalistic interpretation of man and the environment (both “original” and “artefactual”) is the source of countless dangers and misunderstandings, and all three thinkers stress the symbiotic interdependence of man and environment. The thoughtful confrontation with these – sometimes seemingly extreme – approaches is an especially timely endeavour due to recent, increasingly more serious ecological problems.
Contrary to traditional theories according to which a mentally healthy person has realistic perceptions, a new paradigm, still in formation, claims that positively biased perceptions are general, and that they are a condition of mental health. This tendency of ours to see ourselves and the world as if “through rose-coloured spectacles” has been labelled in psychological literature as “positive illusions”. Cross cultural studies have, however, revealed that positive illusions depend on the cultural background. The objective of the present paper is to investigate positive illusions of the Transylvanian Hungarian population, studying at the same time the relationship between positive illusions and mental health on the general non-clinical adult population.
This philosophical experiment freely unfolds Martin Heidegger’s dialogical approach to poetry – primarily the poems of Hölderlin, Rilke, and Trakl – with reference to the paradigms of existential history connected to nature and therefore environment. These paradigms originating from the Greek physis, and leading through the Jewish-Christian natura have long proved to be in need of an existential historical criticism in which the accomplishment of a revealing concern for initial and original possibilities is becoming increasingly unavoidable.
Communicating contemporary reality is one of the main topics in 21st century discourse. Contemporary fiction is one of the means which reflect the most complex aspects of reality. It has developed in the direction of strengthening the postmodernism’s poetics and often built a world model as an apocalyptic space. It keeps the structure of the normal world, but its mythological significance is deformed. Nevertheless, this model permits the existence of versions of eternity even in the middle of that world. Therefore, our argument will follow the degree of keeping of these mythological significances and the way they have changed or have been replaced by others, suitable for the appearance of the created world and for the human attitude towards it.
The history of the German minority in Romania is older than eight centuries. Although in the last two decades the number of Romanian citizens of German nationality living in Romania has decreased dramatically due to migration, the cultural heritage of this population can still be observed in large parts of Transylvania. The schools and high schools in German language that still function today are certainly part of this heritage. The aim of this research is to analyze both the media use of high school pupils in general and the role of German language in their media use in particular.
The communist regime in Romania created a centralized media, characterized by the interlocking of censorship and propaganda, as well as an extensive economic control. After the regime change in Romania, free publicity displaced guided socialist publicity with no transition period. However, neither the new actors of political life, nor the media possessed the basic knowledge, rules, and norms for operating a democratic press. The assertion is based on the analysis of the issues of the Hungarian daily paper Romániai Magyar Szó (Hungarian Word of Romania) in the first half of 1990.
Today, when the scope of mass media has evidently outrun that of philosophy, being equalled with culture itself, the issue is how and to what extent the philosopher may share his “wisdom”, “truth”, or “knowledge” with the par excellence representative of these mass media: the journalist. Philosophy cannot confront itself with media unless it becomes an effective communication practice, meaning that it can change the way we communicate with ourselves and, by our own existence, with others as well. Due to the recent overtness of culture as a result of electronic media, the philosopher has the chance of becoming once more, albeit in communication alone, the old existential actor that he had once been, incorporating into his own existence the preceding text of his own thinking or of tradition.
The instauration of the dualist regime in the Habsburg Empire beginning with 1867 modified the status of Transylvania by making it part of the Hungarian Kingdom. The process of modernization now imposed by Budapest aimed at politically and administratively homogenizing the province with the rest of the kingdom, and also modernizing Transylvania as one of the most backward regions of the Empire. The architecture promoted in the province by architects from Budapest and Vienna was an important visual barometer of these changes, imposing the innovation of both building types and decorative language. The most typical case for the evolution of architecture in the province was the city of Cluj, which has gradually lost its medieval image thanks to new constructions which mostly took place after 1880, turning it into a city dominated by eclectic architecture.
The Depression of Transylvania is the largest depression area within the chain of the Carpathians, and by its associated tectonic, lithological, morpho-climatic, morpho-hydrographic, and bio-pedo-geographic relations it defines the specificity of Transylvanian geographical landscapes. The functionality of Transylvanian geographic landscapes is proved by the heterogeneity of the paleo-media of morphogenesis, and the rate and intensity of contemporary geomorphological processes as apparent in Pleistocene “informational” matrices.
The landscape response to climatic and hydrologic changes was highlighted by: the analysis of climatic and hydrologic conditions, the morpho-dynamics of valleys and slopes, land usage types, and the dynamics of rural and urban settlements. The action of Pleistocene, Holocene, and contemporary modelling factors is apparent in the morphodynamic factors of geomorphological landscapes. Contemporary modelling is inscribed into the Pleistocene matrix, while the processes of linear and regional erosion outline a new dimension of the functions of Transylvanian landscape.
The Transylvanian Plain occupies the central part of the Transylvanian Depression with its territory of over 3900 km2, its geographical and economic components being placed radial-concentrically: the river systems, biotic and climatic elements, and the energy material flux are centrifugal. Consequently, the Transylvanian Plain is characterized by an evident central isolation, which corresponds to the tendencies of national categorization – an area of maximal poverty or an underprivileged area. We add specific biotic and climatic elements to suggest this current scientific idea.
The great majority of geographic hazards developed in the East of the Apuseni Mountains (flash floods, floods and inundations, land instability phenomena, and the pollution of watercourses) are caused by heavy rainfalls. In order to study and statistically analyze the maximum precipitations (monthly and seasonal frequency, quantities with different probabilities of exceedance, maximum intensity) we collected data referring to the highest annual daily amounts of precipitation recorded in a series of raingauge stations in a period of 28 years (1978–2005). The results obtained from the analysis of the maximum precipitations are important starting points for the evaluation of environmental risks.
The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) adopted by the countries of the European Union in 1999 is the model document on which the urban development strategy in Romania has been based. The objective of spatial planning and organization is to identify the right relationship between the natural environment and human activity with the aim of improving the community’s life conditions. The main objective of territorial development strategies is to increase urban comfort. The comfort of urban localities is conferred by the quality, the technological performance of town infrastructure. In this context urban waste management occupies a central place. Ecological waste management contributes to the protection of the environment, and of public health.
Floods are natural phenomena and an element of Earth’s natural hydrological cycle; they have always existed and will continue to exist. From this point of view, flood risk assessment and management is essential. Floods cannot be avoided, but can be managed, and their effects can be reduced by a systematic process of measures and actions meant to diminish the risks associated with this phenomenon. Floods do not know national frontiers, thus the common actions of member states are called for, and the principle of solidarity must play a fundamental role. The initiatives of European officials concretized in Directive 2007/60 regarding flood risk assessment and management. The Directive will be implemented in member states in three stages: a) preliminary flood risk assessment; b) flood hazard mapping and flood risk mapping; c) establishment of flood risk management plans. The target of Directive 2007/60 is the setting of a framework for flood risk assessment and management with a view to reduce negative consequences for human health, environment, cultural heritage, and economic activity.
The present paper analyzes the Romanian oil production policies applied to the Suplacu de Barcău Pannonian commercial hydrocarbon deposit with reference to existing EU legislation.
Oil production and processing have a long tardition in Romania and they have had consistent and set legal stadards. The integration of environmental policies into the hydrocarbon production policies was realized especially after the issuing of the Environmental Protection Law 137/1995.
The actual legislation regarding the oil production conditions in Romania respect in general the requirements of the EU law formulated in Directive No. 94/22/EC regarding the conditions in which authorization is granted to prospect, explore and extract hydrocarbons.
The objective of the exploration and production policy is to intensify geological research in order to discover new deposits and to improve production methods in order to increase the recovery factor to maintain the internal production at the actual level. The integration of environmental policies into the oil production and processing activity is also to be continued.
The main operator of the Romanian oil production market is SC Petrom SA whose strategy is aimed at the stabilization of crude oil and gas production in Romania, the reduction of production costs and the increase of the reserve replacement rate to 70%, as well as the implementation of environmental requirements in the oil production activities.
Recent studies have shown that methane emissions from geological sources can reach important values in sedimentary basins containing hydrocarbons. The flux of methane from soils situated in the perimeter of hydrocarbon bearing basins is greater than in regular soils. Invisible methane degasifications, known as diffuse soil microseepage from soils related to hydrocarbon production in sedimentary basins, increase the atmospheric methane budget. Methane is formed in a natural way, but it can also be the result of several human activities. In nature, this gas is formed as a result of many processes in the biosphere, atmosphere and geosphere.
The paper is a synthetic study of the author’s results regarding the possibility and advantages of the practical use of sexual pheromones. Synthetic sexual pheromones have been proved by ecological studies to be an efficient method both for the monitoring and control of pest insects. The efficient practical use of pheromones depends on the knowledge we have about the biology, ecology and behaviour of the target species. We present the concrete results obtained during the study of some species of harmful Lepidoptera Noctuidae in agroecosystems (with special reference to Mamestra brassicae L.), the research activity taking place from 1980 to 2000. The role of chemical mediators in general is suggested as ecotechnologies protecting the ecosystems and the environment.
The study intends to analyze the issue of European energy security from a historical perspective and also from the point of view of international relations, as well as the geopolitical, geostrategic and geoeconomic role of Turkey in shaping the European energy security complex besides the EU. Emphasizing that Turkey has the role of an “energy hub” between Central Asia–Caucasus and the EU, our research focuses on the special importance of interconnected oil and gas network projects, such as the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan oil pipeline (BTC Pipeline) or the Nabucco gas pipeline and the Turkey–Greece–Italy Interconnector.
A text unknown so far (Bucoavnă pentru întrebuinţarea junimii moldo-române din Bucovina – Primer for the Use of the Moldovan-Romanian Youth of Bukovina, printed in Cernăuţi “at Edtard [probably: Eduard] Viniarj”, without the year of publication) proves an exciting source for reconstructing a new chapter of local cultural history and of the history of education.
The present paper is a preliminary study endeavouring to find some possible interpretations, both cultural and historical, for the 17thcentury decline in publishing popular literature. The basis of this preliminary study is those few extant copies of popular books published by the Heltai press in the 17th century which are housed by the Special Collections Department of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library in Cluj.
This outline has the purpose of putting forward a problem, namely that something happened after the turn of the 16th-17th centuries which radically cut down the number of such works. The paper concludes that, besides economic reasons, this process was rather explained by a complex set of social-historical reasons (religious wars and disputes, influencing both the general “mood” and interest of readers and writers alike), an assumption which indicates the direction of further research.
This paper focuses on the old book collection of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library in Cluj-Napoca, more precisely on the works published in France during the 18th century. It investigates the acquisition modalities of the publications, their dissemination in the library collections, their subject and place of publication, as well as their physical aspect, such as their format, binding, or illustrations. It also analyzes their individual particularities such as bookplates and owners’ notes.
The paper intends to present synthetically the way in which the chapter of Bibliografia Mihai Eminescu (The Bibliography of Mihai Eminescu) entitled Iconografia eminesciană. Mihai Eminescu oglindit în artele plastice(Eminescu’s Iconography. Mihai Eminescu in the Mirror of Fine Arts) is structured and elaborated, the recorded illustrations and references having for a source Romanian and foreign periodicals from the interval 1939–1989. This is the second part of the Bibliography and the 17th and last volume from the series Works (known also as the national edition, the academic edition, and most often by the name of the person who with sublime toil used to decipher Eminescu manuscripts and who edited the first six volumes – “the Perpessicius edition”). Wishing to mirror the mentioned chapter, the article surveys all its sections and subsections –, from photographic documents to exhibitions on Eminescu, going through the representations of the poet and his work (as a source of inspiration, evidently) in painting, graphic and decorative art, and sculpture –, offering only those elements which can throw at least a slight ray of light on the bibliographer’s complex work. This work ranges from investigating a periodical to the identification of an artist or an artistic technique, from the simple application of some consecrated norms to one’s own “view” of how the information must be communicated to those ready to receive it.
The article offers a retrospective look on the development of the electronic review Bibliorev from its beginning to the present by analyzing the evolution of its structure, content and web design.
The publication Bibliorev was started as an online informative bulletin of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library having as its main objective to inform the personnel of the institution on the events organized in and by it, presenting briefly different aspects of the professional activity. Gradually, more scientific articles were included from the field of library and information science.
Having received a review like structure and content as well as an elegant graphic design, at the beginning of 2004, Bibliorev, which was initially an informative bulletin, became an electronic review.
The general perception of the profession of librarian is affected by stereotypes due to lack of information. The instruction of a librarian, quite often ignored, must go beyond the limits of the education one gets at the university, the librarian’s main duty being to observe what is new in the international library community and to permanently adapt and update his knowledge and skills. The image of the scholarly librarian of the Middle Ages, frequently encountered until the late 20th century, has become obsolete nowadays, as the attributes of the profession have changed radically. The direct consequence of the advent of online catalogues was the addition of a new amount of knowledge to the existing librarianship skills, the librarian becoming an information specialist. The combination between traditional librarianship knowledge and the skills claimed by the arrival of new technologies in the library, as well as their harmonization in the library activity has become a sine-qua-non condition for optimal processes and better services. The present library user has also a new image, his behaviour being decisive with regard to the configuration of the information access methods. Since the alternative associated with the library is the Internet, the information existing in the World Wide Web has turned the potential library users into great supporters of the search engines and of some interactive information and editing tools such as: wikis, folksonomies, tagging, blogging. Google and Wikipedia are visited by people quite often without questioning the truthfulness of the data found there. The new technologies may be advantageously employed in libraries, but the time saved must be used sensibly for activities which may attract the users to the library. The offered information has to be diverse and not restricted to bibliographic information. In the present paper a few initiatives are presented to illustrate the wide range of information and services offered to users by the Carol I Central University Library of Bucharest.
The paper describes the automation of a big Romanian library, Lucian Blaga Central University Library of Cluj-Napoca (CUL), revealing the initial and later difficulties, emphasising the problems related to the IT specialists. It presents the members of the IT Laboratory starting with the date when it was officially founded – September the 1st, 1992 – also trying to point out the responsibilities over the years. The first activities of the IT specialists are briefly presented, as well as the important achievements throughout the 16 years since the IT Laboratory setting up. Computer science courses for librarians held by the IT personnel, on which great emphasis was laid for several years, constituted a premier case in the automation process of Romanian libraries. A paragraph is dedicated to national and international projects and programmes, which by means of personnel mobility had a special role in the change of mentalities. The endowment of IT and communication equipment has become one of the most advanced in comparison with other Romanian libraries; the IT specialists contributed to this achievement by a wide range of activities, starting with a thorough search for financial resources to market analysis, acquisition, implementation and maintenance. The automation of the library led to modern information and documentation tools, such as: the Aleph online catalogue, the library’s own bibliographic databases (distributed on CDs and accessible on the Internet), CDs, subscriptions to databases and electronic reviews, and the library’s homepage – http://www.bcucluj.ro. In addition to this, the creation of a digital library has begun in 2008. The main problems related to IT specialists emphasises the complexity of their work, the continuous training, user interaction (librarians and readers), salaries as a first form of acknowledgement, and the need of IT specialists in Romanian libraries.