The concept of a priori does not belong to Heidegger’s favourite or most familiar concepts. Unlike concepts such as, e.g., Sein, physis, ousia, idea, aletheia, etc., it is not given detailed discussions in his works. When it occurs – mostly in the 1920s – it has the usual meaning it has come to obtain in early modern philosophy ever since Kant. A characteristic occurrence of the term crops up in his main work: “‘A-priorism’ is the method of every scientific philosophy which understands itself.” (“Der »Apriorismus« ist die Methode jeder wissenschaftlichen Philosophie, die sich selbst versteht” (Sein und Zeit, p. 50 = Being and Time, trans. John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson, p. 490, note x). To claim that this concept does not rank in Heidegger’s innermost vocabulary is, however, not to claim that he totally ignored or overlooked it. On the contrary: Heidegger was well aware that this concept is closely related to two of his most central concepts or themes: those of time and – through it – to Being. – The paper proposes to explore these dimensions in subsequent steps. First it is shown that, in his critical confrontation of Husserl’s phenomenology, Heidegger appreciated very much Husserl’s efforts to reconstruct “the original sense of a priori” by disengaging it from the subject. Heidegger takes up and radicalizes Husserl’s effort to de-subjectivate this concept in claiming that a priori is a designation of being. Towards the end of the 1927 lecture course (=GA 24) Heidegger comes to expand on the theme more in detail. He says that the original sense of a priori in terms of “earlier” contains a clear reference to time; it is, therefore, a temporal determination. He claims that earlier than any possible “earlier” is time or temporality. This makes it possible to speak meaningfully about something such as “earlier” at all. Time may, accordingly, be called to be the “earliest” of everything that may come “earlier”– it is, indeed, the a priori of all possible a prioris, preceding these and making them possible. On the other hand, preceding all beings is being as such. Being is “earlier” than beings. From this perspective, Being is the absolute a priori. A priori is then both a temporal and an ontological concept. Time, however, understood in terms of its relation to being, is not to be accounted for by and in terms of the common concept of time in the sense of intratemporality. Philosophy as an a priori science is both an ontological and a temporal science, and that is what Heidegger’s main thesis according to which Being and Time belong together comes down to. – In subsequent parts of the paper a possible objection is examined at some length, namely, whether it is not a misunderstanding, on Heidegger’s part, to claim that “earlier” is always and in any case a “temporal” determination, whether, in other words, one could not – and indeed, should not – rather make a distinction between “temporal” and “logical” sequence or succession. This objection is countered with reference to the fact that, in order to reasonably formulate the dichotomy temporal–logical, one must tacitly presuppose a restricted, that is, non-Heideggerian concept of time. A final dilemma emerges with regard to whether and to what extent Heidegger’s assumption of his radically new concept of time can legitimately be linked to (or opposed to) traditional concepts of time – a dilemma pretty much the same as the ones regarding whether and to what extent his radically new concepts, e.g., of history and being, can be linked to, and derived from, a critical confrontation (=destruction) of the philosophical tradition. This dilemma is claimed to pertain to the linguistic dimension of philosophy (that is, of how, with what conceptuality a philosopher addresses or names his subject matter), and it seems hardly able to be overcome.
Volumul XV (2010)
The paper tries to present the way in which the Romanian historian, Alexandru Lapedatu (1876–1954) at the beginning of the 20th century tackled the present he was living in, which was n dondon the intersection between the past as the space of experience and the future as a horizon of expectation. His meditation on the present time elaborated in 1902 evaluated the period subsequent to 1900 – period which went through all the millenarian and eschatological outbursts at the borderline between the two centuries – as a favourable present, as a time of progress and fulfilment. Alexandru Lapedatu affirmed that the present he lived in was characterized by a breach between tradition (conservatism) and progress (modernity). The relationship between past, present, and future can be brought back to balance, this breach can be left behind by resorting to some values which must be cultivated in the public space: respect for traditions, valorising the positive experiences of history, the reconstruction of collective identity which must be n dondon cultural historical and ethnical unity n don the ideal of the Romanian territory’s political unity.
1. Prolegomena. The concept of cyclic phenomenon is a universally perceptible reality. The very idea of cycle and cyclicity needs a clearer and more profound definition. The science that can give it an accurate, apodictic, definition is mathematics. Particularly, in the field of music, due to the oriented existence of the Time vector, the correct representation should always be not the cycle but cycloid and the related family of curves. 2. Subiectio - Cycle, Cyclic and Cyclicity in the Musical Discourse. Different hypostases of the phenomenon are examined and the sources, as well as the specific principles of construction identified. Such an issue obviously integrates itself within the essential distinction between the fundamental opposition between Identity and Alterity. How much identity should there exist at the level of a discourse deemed cyclic? How much alterity should there exist for the recurrence or reiteration to be different and significant? 3. Adjectio – Musical forms and mathematical isomorphism. We find a significative congruence between Hamiltonian graphs on polyhedra and important formal solutions in the field of musical forms such as: tripartite form with reprise, rondo, bitematic sonata. This reality is supported by strong arguments and the complete isomorphism of the three cases presented is not only exciting or disturbing, but also generator of new and important significations. 4. Postegomena – Like polyhedra or the Hanoi tower, the musical forms, elaborated in a long process of discursive evolution and studied by historic and systematic musicology, obviously evoke the same superior models of order and symmetry. The construction of musical forms could be described in the light of Chaos theory as a chaotic phenomenon. The creation of hundreds of composers tends to be regulated in this case by a strange attractor: the regular polyhedra.
The study attempts to demonstrate that time is not solely an intrinsic measure of music. Although it manifests itself directly through durations, rhythm and musical form, time has represented, to certain authors, a quality that can be modelled on three different levels: composition, performance and reception. The paper reveals ways of perceiving musical time, identifies particularities of various cultures, and underlines the active role of rests. Tracing the evolution of preoccupations toward these aspects, it examines compositions and writings of the 20thcentury, which manifest notably increased interest in the topic. By displaying musical examples, the study intends to illustrate various means by which composers have tried to deny or overcome limitations imposed by musical discursiveness.
The paper unfolds the problem of time focusing primarily on the dimension of the future, while, in the background of its sui generis questionings, it is based by a continuous, and again questioning, dialogue with Aristotle and Martin Heidegger. It is the existence of the future which is foremost analyzed, unravelled, dismantled, and thought over in the course of this research. First, as Will-Being, then as Hold-Being. As a being, that is, which – in a particular view of the future – we, humans, Holding on to ourselves, will and must Hold always, and which, with time, Holds on to us at the same time. Therefore the being of future must be grasped first as a being which … Is Not Yet. Consequently the following meditations ask and think over the question: what kind of existence is this Not-Yet-Being after all? And then: what is the actual, living, richly meaningful ontological, existential, and historical horizon of this question? It is here that the problem of human history, human death, and human freedom unfolds from, with a view to the horizon of its possible meanings and outlined possibilities of meanings.
 Lesz-lét: lesz = future tense of “to be”; Fog-lét: the word “fog” = a particle used for forming the future tense of verbs, and the verb meaning “hold”, and “lét” = being. In analyzing the nature being of the future, the author actually investigates that intriguing possibility of the Hungarian language, worthy of philosophical examination, which otherwise would seem a “mere” phonetic or semantic “homonymy”. Similarly to Hegel’s treatment of the word Aufhebung (to sublate), very important to him at that time, in his Science of Logic. There he writes: “'To sublate' has a twofold meaning in the language… But it is certainly remarkable to find that a language has come to use one and the same word for two … meanings. It is a delight to speculative thought to find in the language words which have in themselves a speculative meaning; the German language has a number of such.” See, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Science of Logic, Copyright © 2001 Blackmask Online, http://www.blackmask.com. Letöltve: http://www.hegel.net/en/pdf/Hegel-Scilogic.pdf (Downloaded June 4, 2010.) (Author’s and translator’s note.)
The aim of this essay is to analyze the signification of the mathematical definition of time within the framework of the mathematical methods of classical mechanics. The strictly mathematical definition of time, starting from the requirements of classical mechanics, is at a level of abstractization the specific formalism of which together with the physical intuitive sense of time taken from classical mechanics give a scientific prospect and signification to time considered in this double scientific context. The mathematical time of classical mechanics is a fundamental concept of physics. Starting from the description of its complexity included in its physical-mathematical definition, the study attempts to make certain enlightening explications, followed by an analysis based on an algebraic approach. In this essay, the “algebraic view” on time represents a reference point for the philosophical perspective on the time. The algebraic approach to time proves the complexity of the problems and brings into attention new aspects and at the same time difficulties to be revealed from other viewpoints. After we have become familiar with it, this approach offers new themes for philosophic reflection. We do not refer to a breach between the philosophical and abstract formal views in issues related to time, we only specify the existence of some real distinctions between the two approaches.
In theoretical physics two concepts of time have been formulated: the absolute time of the Newtonian mechanics and the relative time of the relativity theory. At present the relative time dominates the theoretical approaches in physics. But there are quantum phenomena, as the collapse of the wave function, which cannot be explained by the relativity theory. The future unified theory of quantum fields must reconcile such contradictory phenomena.
In a very large perspective, temporal dimension represents one of the essential elements defining the science fiction genre and differentiating it from other literary forms in general. In this study we followed the way in which the science fiction genre, since the most significant works of its beginning, follows the evolution of the most advanced scientific theories, and, by the aid of imagination or fantasy, fictionally speculates the suggestions and hypotheses proposed by theoretical physics, mathematics, or the newest sciences such as nanotechnology for example. The way in which the view of time evolved from the classical, Newtonian period until the contemporary era by developing a new time perception will reflect the evolution of the science fiction genre from its beginnings until the formation of a new line in science fiction, namely cyberpunk.
Seeking to express the inexpressible, combining linguistic simplicity with literary ambiguity, Yasunari Kawabata (1899–1972) explored an area of modern Japanese prose in an original and apparently unequalled manner. His novels are constituted from a flow of images; temporal continuity and causal objectivity are replaced by an inner unity which goes beyond space and time. Suggesting that between people and things there is a coordination and synchronization of feelings, a mutual influence named by Japanese aesthetics mono no aware, the novel Snow Country, using the haiku technique, which concentrates the image in the details, fragments, succeeds in suspending the antinomy between real and eternal. The text suggests that, after all, the duality of this world, the hiatus between the world of reality and of intuition, between nature and mind, between civilization and basic human instincts, between present and the timeless time is passed beyond. Man is continuously searching for the eternity from which he was detached through the existence he received, seeking for the primordial entity from which the human being was tragically separated by the pleasures of the world which have been given to him together with the pain of being. The present study tries to examine a possible answer offered by Kawabata’s novel to the eternal dilemma of Japanese spirituality of choosing between sensuality (or living) and the attraction of nothingness, as it is proposed by Zen Buddhism.
The paper discusses the story cycle set in a frame narrative known by Hungarian literary history as The History of Emperor Pontianus and by international research as Historia septem sapientum. One of the two Hungarian variants was done by Gáspár Heltai, the author of the other is unknown. After a survey of the medieval and early modern Latin, German, and Hungarian textual variants and possible uses of this work – the moralized versions could be used as auxiliary preaching materials and read as mirror for princes – the study presents the interpretational horizons of the frame story.
The second part of the paper focuses on the similarity of the embedded stories to parables and exempla, in fact on the seven sages’ and the empress’ argumentative strategies. The text and the story as well as the prefaces of the two Hungarian translations published in mid 16th century reveal that reception in the Renaissance Age also focused on the entertaining aspect of this work; its main issue, however, was the necessity and possibility of making decisions, the search for truth and the limits of this search.
In this article we analyse the predicative participle constructions (PPC) in the most archaic dialect of Hungarian, the Csángó dialect. In this dialect the participle+copula constructions are both more productive and more diverse than in standard Hungarian. We argue that the Hungarian PPC is a perfect-like construction which belongs to the category of the so-called preaspectual items, and that the construction type in the Csángó dialect may also be considered a partial equivalent for the perfect, enriching the Csángó tense-aspect system. Our analysis also reveals the additional aspecto-temporal and syntactic phenomena related to Csángó PPC formation.
Starting from the collection Notes in Manuscripts and Old Books from Moldova Country. A Corpus edited by Edited by I. Caproşu and E. Chiaburu, we try to discover the temporal reference points of copying manuscripts and to establish the relationship between the individual and community. A classification is proposed, and a chronology of these notes.
Time, History and Legitimacy in Transylvanian Antitrinitarianism The following paper deals with the role of time and history in the attempts of two Antitrinitarian theologians, György Enyedi and Valentin Radecius, to legitimize their doctrinal options, in the case of Enyedi, and to integrate liturgical traditions from other confessions, in the case of Radecius. While Enyedi dismisses the use of historical arguments in theology, by saying that age can not guarantee for validity, Radecius on the contrary, refers to historical traditions in order to use and alter the texts according to the principles of Antitrinitarian theology.
The present study contains unpublished archival information on the history of teaching journalism in Romania. It describes the attempts to institutionalize some forms of instruction, then the appearance of the journalism school in Bucharest, initially within the public academic education, later in the institution training the cadres of the Romanian Communist Party, the Ştefan Gheorghiu Academy. The paper presents enrolment numbers, admission modalities, and curricula in the different stages of the school’s evolution.
The object of the paper is to offer a general analytic and quantitative view on Romanian medical historiography from its beginnings up to the present. With respect to structure, we start with the evolution of bibliographic reference works in the field of the history of medicine, continuing with the presentation of the four stages the research of this scientific domain has gone through. The conclusions point to the idea that though studied mainly by physicians and not historians, the history of medicine in Romania has remained subject to major historiographical changes, and the quantity and quality of the discussions has been directly influenced by the degree of institutionalization present in the domain.
The paper’s aim is to outline the profile of the plague and the shift from a terrible disease of the past to a prolific artistic metaphor from a double perspective: medical and cultural. The demonstration will explore the metamorphosis of a recurrent epidemic: the plague. The study starts with a short medical and cultural history of the disease, which is followed by the examination of the presumed alternative causes of the plague in the course of time (in relation to the natural elements) and of the complex imaginary it gave birth to, and concluded with the discussion of plague as a metaphor in different fields and the legacy it has left.
In the present article we attempt to give a general perspective on the role and usage of time generally in economics and specifically in different areas of the theory of finance as a sub-part of economics. After discussing time in economics in the first chapter, we turn to specific issues such as market timing of investments, timing of replacement decisions and the problem of intertemporal choice (discounting). In the last chapter we discuss controversies and issues related to econometric modelling and time series analysis in finance.
This paper tackles the subject of time management in institutions, based on a general view from a managerial perspective. Based on several representative works for management, among them some bestsellers in the subject of time management, it treats subjects like definitions of Working and Managerial time, their characteristics and subdivisions, time managerial generations, advantages and disadvantages of planning and different approaches to time management in different organizational structures.
I shall prove my overall thesis that Rorty consistently enforces his politically saturated liberal ironic standpoint in the fields of religion and history from his Contingency book (1989). As a neopragmatist thinker he gives priority to politics in the sense of a liberal democracy over everything else. I shall analyze briefly his neo-pragmatist thoughts in general in the first part. This shows Rorty as a liberal ironist who regards almost everything as contingent, except democracy. In the second part I shall interpret his main views about religion in connection with his political thoughts. Finally, I shall show that history also belongs to the contingent social phenomena.
In my study I am trying to bring attention to some aspects of the so-called alternative pedagogical methods: how they can be interpreted in the horizon of hermeneutics and of their claim of being a universal philosophical system; the issues pertaining to the reasoning that justifies the existence of art raised in Gadamer’s study entitled The Relevance of the Beautiful  – and mainly its pedagogical aspects – how these are brought up in the world of a consumer society. Every time art has to redefine its own reason for being and its relationship to tradition, this fact has a great impact on the question of teaching art.
 Hans-Georg Gadamer, A szép aktualitása (The Relevance of the Beautiful) (Budapest: T-TWINS, 1994)
This paper intends to connect to researches about Heidegger’s theological roots and to show how Heidegger’s religion-phenomenological investigations were built in the Being and Time. In the middle of my study is the concept of timefulness; the way in which early Christians lived timefulness; their attitudes to present and future gave the main connection between faith and authenticity, between the early Christians’ life-experience and the characteristics of authentic Dasein. My paper proposes to show that although these connections and parallels remain unexpressed in Heidegger but fundamentally determinate the content of such concepts as authentic-possibility-for-being, resoluteness, being-towards-death, thrownness or disclosedness.
This paper presents an analysis of the ethnological archive, in relation to time, from two points of view: of the content and storing of archived information. The material encompasses two distinct, but complementary, methodological settings: the first is an anthropological study and the second one is a technical approach on the digital archive. This research is an application on the archive of the Folklore Club of the Faculty of Letters, Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
The present study presents the results of an extensive research on how eschatological time is perceived in Romanian traditional culture. In this text we analyze the cumulative model of the Romanian beliefs and superstitions about the eschatological time. The conclusion we reached is that imaginary Romanian traditional culture is a cultural synthesis between elements of Christian dogma and pagan elements present in the cultural substrate. This was articulated, for example in a belief that the end of the world can be postponed by one hundred years through prayers to the Virgin Mary. It is a comfortable period of time, equal to the life of a generation, which gives additional security to the contemporaries.
The paper presents a miscellany dating back to the second half of the 18th century preserved in the Special Collections Department of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library. The volume contains didactic materials used by the Jesuit order, among others four school dramas, which are probably Bishop József Mártonfi’s plays thought to be lost.
The study analyzes the drawings of Venceslav Melka (1834–1911) preserved in the collection of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library in Cluj-Napoca. Following an excursus on the painter’s artistic universe and a historiographical discussion of the theme, the paper continues with the artistic analysis of the drawings. An artist of Czech origin, Melka settled in Transylvania around the year 1870, where he, besides being the Professor of Drawing of the University, also became the Official Painter of the Vienna Court, accompanying Archduke Rudolf on hunting parties. The subjects of his drawings are varied, ranging from landscapes to studies of trees, genre scenes and studies of hands and animals realized in the academic style.
As a basic educational structure shaping the generations, the public library constitutes one of the most adequate places for the concentration of the forces which favour education. Based on recent observations which reveal with regret the children’s, and especially teenagers’, indifference towards or rejection of the act of reading, the present study proposes methods for raising the child-users’ interest in reading, through a programme of creative training based on the interaction of numerous sources, texts, images, sounds, puppets, etc., in the toy library of the children’s section, organized as an area for the training of future readers and for bringing children closer to spiritual values by means of books.
The present research studies more thoroughly and extends from global perspectives the ideas elaborated in a former study dedicated to that which was named there – related to libraries, but not exclusively – symbolic marketing, embodied and objectified as a metaphor. “Living”, active and efficient metaphor. The analyses focus, on the one hand, on the theoretical, conceptual – and even philosophical – aspects of “symbolic marketing”. On the other hand, applying these theoretical considerations, we present and examine as a case study the journal entitled Philobiblon (http://www.philobiblon.ro), edited by the Lucian Blaga Central University Library (Cluj, Romania), and the marketing procedures associated with it. The periodical is a transdisciplinary scientific organ published in English, destined from its beginnings to the market of international interlibrary publication exchange, which has developed an entire network of peculiar, individual and characteristic marketing structures and initiatives: living, objectified symbolic-metaphoric structures which are evolving and getting diversified not only in the context but also with a view to globalization.
Organizational culture and its impact on the management of an institution is a highlight in the dynamic society we live in. Understanding organizational culture is paramount for the management of a library: getting familiar with the employees’ behaviour and working styles, their abilities and way of implication in the institution’s development and good functioning is of assistance in designing and carrying out managerial policies and anticipating possible changes. Organizational culture research is achieved by approaching its defining elements: norms, rules, values and beliefs shared, customary practices, learning mechanisms, ways of communication, criteria of pertinence to a community, desirable and undesirable behaviours, attitude towards the library’s mission undertaken and its strategy of accomplishment.