This paper intends to focus on the Calvinist and Lutheran refugees of Royal Hungary in order to introduce the major types of exile cases and to evaluate their particular significance in the relevant historical and intellectual contexts of the late seventeenth century. It will argue that the emergence of a reformed confessional identity may well have been influenced by exile experiences, yet the Hungarian case displayed some special features, such as the close interrelatedness of martyrological discourses with patterns of early modern proto-nationalism. It will conclude establishing that the delayed character of both persecution and the emergence of a protestant martyrology demand a rather different perception of Reformation too. Taking into account the historical facts that it was only the Edict of Tolerance (1782) and its validation (1791) that terminated religious persecution and granted free practice of religions, the concept of long Reformation appears to be the most fitting application to the Hungarian case.
Volumul XXV (2020), nr. 2
The study deals with 16th and 17th century Hungarian printed polemical works considering religious disputes a typical form of communication in the age of Reformation and Catholic renewal. Its conceptual framework is the paradigm or research method of the long Reformation as an efficient assistance to the discovery and appreciation of early modern theological-religious diversity. The analysis examines several kinds of communication which occurs in the (religious) dispute, and explores the rules and conventions along which the (verbal) fighting takes place. Research shows that the opponents repeatedly refer to the rules of dialectics refuting each other’s standpoints accusing them of faulty argumentation, i.e., the wrong use of syllogisms. Dialectics is, namely, in this context not the ars with the help of which truth is found but with which evident truth is checked and justified in a way that the opponents can also be educated to follow the right direction.
The study examines the issue of the long Reformation in a manuscript that originated in the late 17th century, the first decades of the 18th century. The manuscript is the product of the Reformation in Romania, whose linguistic and regional peculiarities are at least as important as its lay and occasional nature: we have not discovered another source that documents communal but not ecclesiastical, individual, but not solitary religious piety. We hereby undertake the micro- level analysis of this document.
Emperor Ferdinand II’s Catholic troops won a crushing victory over the Protestants’ army at the battle of White Mountain (Bílá Hora), near Prague, on 8 November 1620. Shortly after that, White Mountain became a place of remembrance and a symbol of prevail for the Catholic Bohemians. Servite monastery and a church attached to it, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, were built on the battlefield, with support from the Emperor, which symbolised the victory of the Emperor’s troops and that of the Catholic Church. White Mountain was an important place for Protestants as well. For Protestant Bohemians, the defeat was the beginning of the end of their religious freedom. Their works keep quiet about the events leading to and succeeding the battle. However, their narratives about the events of their personal lives and sufferings did use the name of this symbolic place as a point of reference for a new time frame. For them, White Mountain was a place, a cause, and a take-off of losing their homes and properties, and those of their compelled escapes and exiles.
The aim of this essay is to find some hints and data about how the meaning of sport was interpreted in conduct books in the early modern Hungarian literature. Here, the attributes of sport are said to further piety in the perspective of regulation: man should not serve God every day through sportive tricks, but through zealous routine of life, as a recreation form of a Christian. The laws of Hungarian Protestant Colleges (17th–19th centuries) include canons for many arts of sport and the conduct book also addresses regular exercises for preaching and praying as if they were acts of recreation.
The Institute of Hungarian Literary and Cultural Studies at the University of Debrecen formed a research group in 2010 in order to launch the research of Hungarian realms of memory. This paper was written within the frameworks of the research group. Its basic hypothesis is that the identification of Hungary as the Bastion of Christendom is an established part of Hungarian collective memory. This paper attempts to demonstrate the changes of this realm of memory, regarding its meaning and function, from its formation up to the present day.
The transliteration1 of the Romanian books printed with Cyrillic characters, a procedure assumed through the research project MCVRO, offers to the readers that are passionate about the old writings, the possibility to discover texts that have an impressive cultural value. The volume Christian Teachings (Învăţături hristianiceşti), published by Antim Ivireanu in 1700, comprises a series of Christian reflections on several problems which are extremely actual. Our attention will be focused on the theme of alterity theorized and applied to the daily realities from that time. The study wishes to emphasize the extent to which the behavioural paradigms proposed by the author may be applied nowadays.
The present paper aims to examine the main directions the historical research of medieval seals has followed in the recent decades. Starting from several sigillography handbooks developed in both Western and Romanian academic environments, but also from the published inquiries of the most important contemporary scholars active in this field of study, the present article focuses on their most relevant contributions, their historiographical impact, as well as the concepts and ideas formulated and debated on these occasions. Therefore, the purpose of this approach is not only to make a brief review of the state-of-the-art research in Western sigillography, but also to point out the main directions the Romanian sigillographic research should pursue in the years to come.
The OCR process is a complex one and with interdisciplinary implications. This paper deals with old historical religious manuscripts and old books to offer solutions for the digitalization process. A high rate of success in the OCR process will help researchers from various fields to use relevant content and to value it in their research. When a research in the field of theology or history is conducted, there are many issues, especially when trying to access old manuscripts. There is no digitalized content to access old Romanian manuscripts and researchers need to learn specific old writing. The focus of the present study is on the problematic technical aspects that we encountered in our attempt to establish the equilibrium ratio between the instruments for the capitalization of the information and the contribution of the specialists in such research studies.
The present article approaches the ample Tsarist campaign diary (1,300 folios), describing Moldavia and Wallachia’s 1848-1850 military occupation by the Russian 5th army corps led by general commander Alexander Nikolaevich Lüders, and the protecting power’s armed interventions in Transylvania (1849). The echoes of this long military campaign were feebler at that time, than those of the much- clamored Russian campaign in Hungary (June-August 1849). Ignored so far by the Russian and Romanian historiographies (even if for different reasons), the 1848-1850 occupation of the Romanian Lands is minutely related by an unknown source, recently discovered in the Russian State Military-Historical Archive in Moscow and edited by us. Also analyzed the difficult conditions of access in the War Archive of the former Tsarist Empire, today Eastern Europe’s largest military archive of medieval and modern history.
After re-reading the lyric poetry of Vasile Alecsandri and George Coșbuc, the article aims to highlight the mechanism through which the War of Independence (1877-1878) of the Kingdom of Romania, bringing an end to a revolutionary epoch, enters the consciousness of posterity literary instrumented by the poems of two civilian writers, fueling the myth of the heroic Romanian soldier while writing not only from a significant geographical distance in relation to the battlefield, but also from a temporal one, biologically speaking.
The present study reviews D. Popovici’s founding attempts in the field of literary history. It pursues his activity along four axes: critical editions of modern Romanian authors, studies in literary history, university lectures and “Studii literare” [Literary Studies], the scientific journal he founded as a professor of Cluj University. Both original and modern in his theoretic, methodologic as well as academic options, Popovici is a founder of institutions and initiator of a research school. His scientific projects are singular in their scope. Yet his critic posterity destines him to an unwarranted “singularity”. Our reflection focuses upon the exemplary elements in the scholar’s destiny.
Building on several international professional meetings of architects organized in Romania or abroad, this article details how various modernist principles, traditionally subsumed to Western European culture, were gradually reinterpreted as an object of policy and professional knowledge on urban space in the second and third world countries. The article analyses the dialogue between Romanian architects and their foreign colleagues. It highlights how these conversations adjusted the hierarchies and power relations between states and hegemonic centres of knowledge production. In this sense, it contributes to the recent research on the means by which the "trans- nationalization of expertise" "transformed various (semi)peripheral states into new centres of knowledge and thus outlines a new analytical space where domestic actions of the Romanian state in the area of urban policies are to be analysed not as isolated practices of a totalitarian regime, but as expressions of the entanglements between industrialization models, knowledge flows and models of territoriality that were not only globally relevant, but they also often received specific regional, national and local forms.
Although from a medical point of view, melancholy and depression are indistinguishable, I will try to argue that, from a philosophical perspective, there is an important distinction between the two related affective states. Analyzing various philosophical, literary, poetical, psychiatric and musical works, such as Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), Butler’s Characters (1659), Goethe’s Werther (1774), Novalis’s Hymns to the Night (1800), Beethoven’s “Moonlight” Sonata (1801), Baudelaire’s Flowers of Evil (1857), Cotard’s report on the Hypochondriac Delirium (1880), Kraepelin’s Textbook of Psychiatry (1883), I will try to clarify the psychological ambiguity between melancholy and depression.