The landscape, as a cultural history theme or as a theme of the history of representations, belongs to a certain “sensory anthropology”, which is a complex endeavour of signification, developed by people on nature and on the world in which they live. The developments of the definition of the landscape in its interpretive alignments contain a variety of themes delivered to a group of readings. Thus, the first group focuses on the history of the knowledge of nature and of the surrounding environment as an epistemologically outlined itinerary. A second alignment is represented by the philosophical-ethical perspective on nature from the 18th century, the third group is centred on the literary thematic of nature. The fourth group focuses on the physiocratic, fruitful approaches on nature, dominated by the economic thought and practices of the 18th century and the fifth direction is represented by the monographic direction.
Volume XXIV (2019), no. 2
Despite France's low interest in the Romanian people, the ties between the two peoples expanded in the first half of the 19th century. Before that, the consular activity was limited to unimportant reports, which targeted different abuses of the administration, without reference to the political conditions of Moldova and Wallachia. After 1830 and especially after the Treaty of Adrianople, when Turkish control over trade on the Danube is removed, France and the other European states begin to show a greater interest towards the Principalities of Moldova and Wallachia. The crisis of the Ottoman Empire increased this interest of France.
Although the French were not interested in the problems of the Principalities, in the mid-nineteenth century, an image of Moldova and Wallachia began to emerge in France. This image was especially drawn in the diplomatic and scientific circles due to the great influx of information regarding the Romanians.
Functionalism as a theory of international relations was developed by David Mitrany and Jean Monnet. Their contemporaries were Albert Thomas and Francis Delaisi, whose names are rarely mentioned in the history of European integration, yet they contributed effectively to the implementation of the first trans-European public work conceived as a remedy after the Economic Crisis. Albert Thomas as the first Director General of the International Labour Office integrated Delaisi’s plans into the program of the ILO. This paper presents those projects that were implemented during the thirties and were the first trans-European infrastructural development programs.
During the period of high-Stalinism until the Hungarian uprising of 1956, the increasingly tyrannical public policy completely subdued the operation of intellectual areas. Publishing can be conceived of as a tentacle of the literary policies of the period, the principal place where state-control could be exerted.
My paper provides a picture of the inescapable paths for a publisher in this era through the analysis of samples from the operation of a state-owned publishing enterprise: the Literary Fiction Publishers’ and illustrate how József Révai executed ideological control at many phases of the publishing process.
The current study highlights the European dimension of Romanian folklore by resorting to an anecdote from Grimm Brothers’ collection: Der alte Hildebrand. During the inter-war period, the Estonian professor Walter Anderson studied the European alternatives of the anecdote that were available to him at the time. Ion Mușlea, a Romanian folklorist, analyzed the Romanian alternatives of the same anecdote by taking into account Anderson’s conclusions. After WWII, another Romanian folklorist, Gheorghe Cernea, discovered an inter-war dramatized alternative of the anecdote in Transylvania. The comparative analysis of all these materials calls attention to the Romanian features of the anecdote as compared to common European folklore motives.
If we leave aside the contrastive method, often used in the process of teaching foreign languages, lingua franca (or the contact language) is replaced in the act of teaching Romanian language as a foreign language (henceforth called RLS ̶ Româna ca limbă străină) by a recognizable mixture of clichés, seen as a class of socio-cultural and linguistic codes. The existence of endless resources of signification hidden in every cliché gives us the opportunity to reflect on the role played by clichés in acquiring new vocabulary at a basic level of RLS. Under what circumstances can they be used? What are the advantages/disadvantages? How beneficial would be the use of clichés as a mediator in teaching RLS?
The present study brings to the foreground the role of the foreign language teacher in the micro-society of the classroom. Decentralization, a principle promoted by didactics today, represents the shift of the teacher’s role from a central to a marginal position or to a similar position to that of students. In the first part of the article we will follow the evolution of the teacher’s role, through a history of the discipline, emphasizing the relation of different epistemological contexts, methodologies proposed across time and the hierarchical position of the teacher in relation to the students. The purpose of this diachronic overview is to show that decentralization is the fundamental and absolutely necessary principle in the present didactics of foreign languages, a principle adapted to the learning philosophy promoted by the CEFRL. In the second part, we will analyse some of the techniques used to decentralize the process of teaching-learning foreign languages. Moreover, we will illustrate the changes brought about by decentralization, as well as the connecting points between them and the action-based perspective, a theoretical vision promoted by the CEFRL.
Idiomatic expressions contain elements of human essence, in the form of cultural markers, aspects of tradition, remembrances of the past, collective mentalities, cognitive patterns and figurative thinking. The investigation of idioms from different languages can highlight resemblances and contrast between people and cultures. Given that the nature of idioms is mainly metaphoric, it is interesting to analyze how language users decode their figurative meaning, particularly how non-native speakers interpret the metaphorical significance of idioms from foreign languages. This experiment focuses on the mechanisms of metaphorical thinking, emphasizing the role of accessing symbolic and conceptual knowledge or interpreting references in the use and understanding of idiomatic expressions.
The aim of this paper is to discuss ethical challenges occurring in the interpretation of Iris Murdoch’s novels. Due to her role as an academic who taught moral philosophy at Oxford and to the writings that she produced from such a position, her novels have also been consistently treated as vehicles for philosophical ideas, despite her constant warnings that her literary work and her philosophy are not interrelated. According to Murdoch, any philosophical mixture in her novels is purely accidental and should not be given any attention whatsoever. However, critics have not ceased to look into Murdoch’s novels for her philosophy. In this article, I question the limits of interpretation as far as three of Iris Murdoch’s novels are concerned.
The present study proposes to bring into attention the expansion of the Order of the Friars Minor in the Kingdom of Hungary and in Transylvania, in particular. The spread is of great significance because was one of the first things that the friars undertake after the approval of the Order. Thus, on the one hand, this contributed to convert a large number of persons, and on the other hand, it served the interests of the crowned heads and nobles. Based upon two types of sources (archives and minorite literature) the present research tries to answer a couple of questions, such as: ”How did the Order arrive into the Kingdom of Hungary?” or ”Which information is still available regarding the Province?”.
Pelbartus de Themeswar and Osualdus de Lasko are the only Hungarian authors of sermon collections in the Middle Ages. For a research concerning medieval preaching in Transylvania, focusing mainly on the reception of homiletic literature, their works are of a special importance. As they were compiled in the proximity, one might expect that these preaching aids arouse the interest of the Transylvanian public and the amount of copies currently preserved in local libraries suggests the same. The present paper questions the provenance of these volumes in order to determine to what extent they were received, circulated and used in this province of the Hungarian Kingdom at the end of the Middle Ages.
The present paper focuses on the interconnected relationship between higher education, ecclesiastical career and local learning in the area inhabited by the Transylvanian Saxons during the “long 15th century”. This discussion revolves around the phenomenon of book accumulation that can be linked to the priests and the parish church of Cisnădie/Heltau, a small settlement with urban aspirations in southern Transylvania. The clergy of Cisnădie’s Saint Walpurgis parish church took advantage of the availability of university education in Central European institutions founded in the second half of the 14th century (Prague, Vienna and Cracow), and brought back from their academic sojourns the texts needed for the daily functioning of the parish: sermon collections, canonical treatises, manuals on pastoral ministry. By producing in turn local writings, the literate clergymen used such books as vehicles of both instruction and transfer of knowledge, as well as for an improved pastoral care.
The paper analyzes the missives sent home by Ferenc Várdai, who studied in Padua and Bologna between 1500 and 1504 and later became bishop of Transilvania. This inquiry provides some data about the flow of information in that period and shows the strategies which the Várdai family employed in order to improve its social status. Studying in a university was seen more as a middle to acquire power and relationships, rather than knowledge. The construction of a wide relationship network home and abroad was important in order to obtain major ecclesiastical benefices, for the prestige and enrichment of the family.
From the first half of 20th century to the present day, the Romanian historiography present that Nicolae Pătrașcu, the son of Michael the Brave, enrolled to Jesuit College at Cluj. In the present study I propose to research this subject, trying to answer some questions: did the son of Michael the Brave truly attend the school in Cluj and if he did, when? What are the sources that relate to such a possibility and do they fully support the hypothesis? When were the sources issued? When did Nicolae Pătrașcu come to Cluj?
An almost diminished community, subject to Hungarian and Saxon authorities, made the transition from its Slavonic identity to the Romanian and German by remaining (almost completely) loyal to Lutheranism. This denomination became a strong component of the Bulgarian identity in Transylvania and its only tie to the past. The Lutheran Church Records depict the assimilation of an ethnic minority into two of the major ethnic groups in Transylvania from the 17th to the 20th century A. D.