This paper aims to examine the concern of Roman society for political philosophy, especially the efforts of the Latin historian Sallust to harmonize Roman political reality, the result of an evolution for centuries, with political theoretical models, of Platonic inspiration. Political ideas expressed here are researched both in monographs on Sallust and the historian’s epistles addressed to Caesar. The author's identity problem is a starting point to argue that in the era of the collapsing Roman Republic there existed a general concern about the concept and the development of the state. The question of selecting a leader for the ideal society, as it is treated in Plato's Laws, remains open, and leaves room for further discussions; what is maintained in the corpus of texts studied is the option for a unique leader of monarchical type supported and assisted by a council of legislators. The two types of war, external and internal, also constitute a common topic of Plato's dialogue and the Roman thinker, yet having different weight in the works cited; Plato provides rules for a hypothetical war, while for the Roman state which is about to be reborn rules take into account both the consequences of civil war and political experience of the Roman hegemony.
Volume XXII (2017), no. 2
Proclus insists on the fact that the One cannot be named and that it cannot be talked about. Proclus does not emphasize the poverty of language, but rather the transcendence of the One. The human discourse concerning the One can be generally validated as a reflection “of the natural striving of the soul towards the One”. The goal of the soul is thus not to obtain “scientific knowledge” (ἐπιστήμη) but to achieve resemblance to the One, for only thus can the soul know the One. Unification is what brings us closer to the One, and this unity is another type of knowledge: it is knowledge inspired by divinity, higher than the “scientific knowledge”.
Albert the Great aimed to construct a universal system of sciences based on the Aristotelian works. In his undertaking, Albert had to face a double challenge. On the one hand, he faced the issue of the natural philosophy (physica) as a science of universally valid principles, as the science of changeable bodies. On the other hand, Albert had to argue for the inclusion of the study of the intellect, which does not have any corporeal instrument, within natural philosophy. In this paper, I shall argue that Albert solved these two problems by applying the principle of finality. The medieval author justified the status of the natural philosophy as a universal science as well as the possibility to study the intellect within the natural philosophy from the perspective of their causa finalis.
The article presents the history of a series of incunabula belonging until the Reformation to the Dominican convent of the Holy Cross in Bistrița, Transylvania. The books were discovered in 1776 by the Piarists, who had been active in Bistrița since 1717. In 1878, the books were transferred to the Central Piarist Library in Budapest. To establish the books’ history, the present research has benefited from two recent resources: the on-line catalogue of the Central Piarist Library, and the hitherto unused Historia Bistriciensis Domus Scholarum Piarum ab anno MDCCXVII, discovered in 2009.
The research on the first international journal of comparative literary studies has usually foregrounded only one of the founders of the Acta Comparationis Litterarum Universarum, namely Hugo von Meltzl. This Romantically biased image of the sole founding father suppressed all the research questions regarding the extremely large and complex network of collaborators. The focus on the scholarly pool of wide geographic, cultural and ethnic variety of 120 collaborators could reframe our basic questions regarding the emergence and transnational transmission of early institutional comparative literary knowledge, but it would also lead to a more focused analysis on the way networking and various types of transnational networks produced diverse forms and notions of comparative literature. This paper investigates only one type of cluster/network and its consequences within the first international journal of comparative literary studies; it focuses on the role of ethnic and cultural hybridity, and its impact on imagining transnationality and comparative literature in the ACLU.
The paper explores the ways of transmitting connotations in translation. The study is based on the analytical approaches suggested by Fredric Jameson, Wilhelm Dilthey, Mikhail Bakhtin, H.-G. Gadamer, Claude Lévi-Strauss and Yuriy Lotman as well as ideas of modern translation theorists Lawrence Venuti, Gideon Toury, Emily Apter, André Lefevere, Susan Bassnett, Edith Grossman, and Maria Tymoczko. Two Ukrainian versions of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar are in the focus of attention. Panteleimon Kulish’s version exemplifies the brilliant conveying of culturally specific notions. Vasyl’ Mysyk’s creative attempt proves that political implications can be rendered on the level of the collective memory. Both translations can be treated as a kind of implicit ideological weapon employed to initiate the thought-provoking process in the colonial and totalitarian contexts.
The present study is a hermeneutical analysis of the primary meanings (signa propria) and the secondary meanings (signa translata) in the novel Suflet japonez (Japanese Soul) (published in 1937 and republished in 2004), written by General Gheorghe Băgulescu (1890–1973), an interwar diplomat and a writer with an impressive reputation. Given the fact that the hermeneutical mechanism can define the aesthetic value of a text, by trying to capture a final meaning (if there is one), the present study wishes to explore the cohesion of the narrative unity in this historical novel, which was well known at the time but has now been forgotten. My interest was for the Romanian author’s motivation for his choice of a subject, for the first time in Romanian, of the Japanese legend (chūshingura) of the 47 rōnin (wandering samurai with no lord or master) who end their lives after they had avenged their master who had been condemned to death through cunning schemes, a theme that has bestirred great interest in Japan and worldwide. The present analysis tries to explore the means through which Gheorghe Băgulescu approached this subject, by questioning whether this historical novel (published before James Cavell’s Shogun in 1975) managed to surpass the pattern-situations, in order to create an original literary space.
Despite the fact that Mary Shelley and E. M. Cioran have never been previously analyzed in the same context (they belong not only to different ages but also to divergent genres), we will find that they share at least two similar themes. The motif of solitude, common among Romantic poets (Coleridge, Byron, Poe), finds a deep expression in Shelley’s Frankenstein and in Cioran’s early oeuvre. A more thorough investigation of the British novelist and the Romanian-French self-described “anti-philosopher” discloses that hatred (a theme that is not frequently researched from a philosophical point of view) might be another of their obsessions. The concept of the nihilistic not-man becomes useful when we will follow the tripartite shape of hatred (of others, of myself and of God) not only in literature or philosophy but also in pop culture.
The paper dwells upon the crisis of literary sociology in Romanian criticism in the decade(s) after the demise of Socialist Realism. Viewing it as a paradox within the research commandments of a communist regime, the study relates this crisis both to the decline of the Marxist-Leninist frame in post-Stalinist, Soviet-emancipated Romania, and to the rising fame of French Structuralism. Some relevant case studies are chosen to highlight the development of Romanian sociological criticism, its difficulty to make amends with the dogmatic past and to swiftly move on to the next level.
Derrida’s deconstruction is closely related to Heidegger’s programme of Destruktion, philosophy of difference and formulation of the claim of transcending metaphysics. In spite of the similarities and differences of Destruktion and deconstruction, Heidegger’s thinking proves to be unavoidable for Derrida. Nevertheless Derrida’s deconstruction can be interpreted as the deconstruction of the Heideggerian Destruktion. This study will outline the central points of the philosophy of Destruktion and deconstruction.
The popularity of Slavoj Žižek is on a continual rise ever since the outbreak of the global financial crisis. This fact seems readily understandable, since he is the representative of a view directed against banks, big capital, and exploitation. Žižek is among those contemporary, anti-postmodernist philosophers, who think that political consequences can be drawn from the Christian message, and that contemporary political philosophy is in need of Christianity. In his work The Ticklish Subject. The Absent Centre of Political Ontology (1999), following Alain Badiou, Žižek traces a parallel between the American global domination of our time and the late Roman Empire, also a “multiculturalist” global state in which ethnic groups were held together by a non-substantial link (in this case not by capital, but by Roman law). Therefore, what we need today, according to Žižek, is the gesture that would undermine capitalist globalization from the standpoint of a universal Truth, as Pauline Christianity did to the global Roman Empire. The postmodernist multiculturalism critiqued by Žižek tolerates the otherness of the Other by eliminating its very essence. According to the (multiculturalist) ethics of tolerance, respect is formal, empty, and devoid of substance: the moral position turns into not judging/not evaluating – e.g. you can do anything you want if it does not concern me –, morality turns into its own opposite.
“Reading” a photograph, compared to just looking at one, implies a complex perceptual experience layering compositional aspects, background information, and even preconceptions. Nevertheless, this process of deconstructing the image might really become fascinating, if the object of the study is a human portrait. Thus, the paper proposes an insight into the life of one of the most mysterious women in history, Virginia Oldoïni Vérasis, Countess de Castiglione. The analysis will focus especially on her portrait, Scherzo di follia.
The paper discusses the relation between technology and the female body in one of the most controversial books written by the Japanese writer Haruki Muramaki, 1Q84, starting from cyberpunk fiction and its perspective on the human body as one of the research directions put forth in my doctoral thesis Fenomenul Science fiction în cultura postmodernă (The science fiction phenomenon in postmodern culture). Somewhere between science fiction and realistic literature, the novel 1Q84 approaches one of the most interesting issues of the contemporary world: the post-human condition. The discussion of the post-human condition implies a dual perspective. On the one hand, it implies the dissolution of ontological limitations that favour information over matter, understanding consciousness as an epiphenomenon, the body conceived technologically as “adjustable” through an intelligent implant (the cyberbody). On the other hand, the posthuman condition creates a tension that renders problematic the traditional conflict between Nature and Culture, leading to a fictional conceptualization of the human entailing the Biology–Technology relation. With this dual perspective in mind, the prefix post in post-human necessarily implies an evolution to a new order of the human (not necessarily a superior one) in a sort of biological avant-garde. Instead, the paper advances the concept of BQdy for use in Haruki Murakami’s case, offering not a new, evolution-based order of the human (the female body) but a different order or condition which, in the wQrld of 1Q84, is transformed into a bQdy.
Starting from the realization that gender-related discriminatory practices are still encountered frequently enough as to account for the coinage of words like mansplaining (2008) and hepeated (2017), this article retraces the roots of divergent linguistic behaviours to the gender stereotyping underlying parental behaviour or social normativity and articulates the importance of analyzing cross-sex interaction by using the cross-cultural communication framework of analysis. This approach has the potential for equity-inducing change by helping people break the psychological hold of the gender-related ideologies thrust on them in childhood and by ensuring that members of both sexes are sensitized to the others’ interactional idiosyncrasies and encouraged to accommodate them.